Blair Armstrong

Blair Armstrong

Affiliated Researcher
Marie Curie Fellowship 2014-2016

computational/connectionist modeling, word comprehension,semantic ambiguity, semantic memory deficits, time-course of processing, response selection/generation, stimulus selection methods

Tel.: +34 943 309 300
personal web page:


  • López Zunini, R.A., Baart, M., Samuel, A.G., & Armstrong, B.C. , ( 2020 ) Lexical access versus lexical decision processes for auditory, visual, and audiovisual items: Insights from behavioral and neural measures. Neuropsychologia, 137. Doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.107305
  • Frost, R., Armstrong, B.C., & Christiansen, M.H., ( 2020 ) Statistical learning research: A critical review and possible new directions. Psychological Bulletin, 145(12), 1128–1153. Doi: 10.1037/bul0000210
  • Rice, C.A., Beekhuizen, B., Dubrovsky, V., Stevenson, S., & Armstrong, B.C., ( 2019 ) A comparison of homonym meaning frequency estimates derived from movie and television subtitles, free association, and explicit ratings. Behavior Research Methods, 51:1399–1425. Doi: 10.3758/s13428-018-1107-7
  • Ling, S., Lee, A.C.H., Armstrong, B.C., & Nestor, A., ( 2019 ) How are visual words represented? Insights from EEG-based visual word decoding, feature derivation and image reconstruction. Human Brain Mapping, 40: 5056–5068. Doi: 10.1002/hbm.24757
  • Siegelman, N., Bogaerts, L., Armstrong, B.C., & Frost, R., ( 2019 ) What exactly is learned in visual statistical learning? Insights from Bayesian modeling. Cognition, 192. Doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2019.06.014
  • Roux, F., Armstrong, B.C., & Carreiras, M., ( 2017 ) Chronset: An automated tool for detecting speech onset. Behavior Research Methods, 49: 1864–1881. Doi:10.3758/s13428-016-0830-1
  • Baart, M., Armstrong, B.C., Martin, C.D., Frost, R., & Carreiras, M., ( 2017 ) Cross-modal noise compensation in audiovisual words. Scientific Reports, 7:42055. Doi: 10.1038/srep42055
  • Armstrong, B.C., Dumay, N., Kim, W., & Pitt, M.A., ( 2017 ) Generalization from newly learned words reveals structural properties of the human reading system. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(2), 227-249. DOI: 10.1037/xge0000257
  • Armstrong, B.C., Frost, R., & Christiansen, M. H., ( 2017 ) The Long Road of Statistical Learning Research: Past, Present, and Future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 372: 20160047. Doi: 10.1098/rstb.2016.0047
  • Armstrong, B.C., & Plaut, D.C., ( 2016 ) Disparate semantic ambiguity effects from semantic processing dynamics rather than qualitative task differences. Language, Cognition, & Neuroscience, 31(7) : 940-966. Doi: 10.1080/23273798.2016.1171366
  • Armstrong, B.C., Zugarramurdi, C., Cabana, A., Valle Lisboa, J., & Plaut, D.C., ( 2016 ) Relative meaning frequencies for 578 homonyms in two Spanish dialects: A cross-linguistic extension of the English eDom norms. Behavior Research Methods, 48: 950–962. DOI: 10.3758/s13428-015-0639-3
  • Armstrong, B.C., Ruiz-Blondet, M., Khalifian, N., Kurtz, K.J., Jin, Z. & Laszlo, S., ( 2015 ) Brainprint: Assessing the uniqueness, collectability, and permanence of a novel method for ERP biometrics. Neurocomputing, 166(2015)59–67. doi:10.1016/j.neucom.2015.04.025
  • Frost, R., Armstrong, B.C., Siegelman, N., & Christiansen, M.H., ( 2015 ) Domain generality versus modality specificity: the paradox of statistical learning. Trends in Cognitive Science (TICS), 19(3), 117–125. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2014.12.010.
  • Carreiras, M., Armstrong, B.C., Perea, M., & Frost, R. , ( 2014 ) The What, When, Where, and How of Visual Word Recognition Trends in Cognitive Sciences (TICS), 18(2):90-98. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2013.11.005.
  • Ruiz-Blondet, M., Khalifian, N., Armstrong, B.C., Jin, Z., Kurtz, K.J., & Laszlo, S., ( 2014 ) Brainprint: Identifying Unique Features of Neural Activity with Machine Learning. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Mahwah, NH: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Laszlo, S., & Armstrong, B.C. , ( 2014 ) PSPs and ERPs: Applying the dynamics of post-synaptic potentials to individual units in simulation of temporally extended Event-Related Potential reading data. Brain & Language, 132, 22–27. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2014.03.002.
  • Lerner, I., Armstrong, B.C., & Frost, R., ( 2014 ) What can we learn from learning models about sensitivity to letter-order in visual word recognition? Journal of Memory and Language, 77, 40-58. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2014.09.002.
  • Laszlo, S., & Armstrong, B.C.*, ( 2013 ) Applying the dynamics of post-synaptic potentials to individual units in simulation of temporally extended ERP reading data. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2826-2831). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • Armstrong, B.C., & Plaut, D.C. , ( 2013 ) Simulating overall and trial-by-trial effects in response selection with a biologically-plausible connectionist network. In M. Knauff, M. Pauen, N. Sebanz, & I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 139-144). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • Cree, G. S., & Armstrong, B.C. , ( 2012 ) Computational models of semantic memory. In Spivey, M., Joanisse, M., & McRae, K. (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 259-282). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Watson, C. E., Armstrong, B.C., & Plaut, D. C. , ( 2012 ) Connectionist modeling of neuropsychological deficits in semantics, language, and reading. Advances in the neural substrates of language: Toward a synthesis of basic science and clinical research (pp. 103-124). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Armstrong, B.C., Tokowicz, N., & Plaut, D.C. , ( 2012 ) eDom: Norming software and relative meaning frequency norms for 544 homonyms. Behavior Research Methods. URL:
  • Armstrong, B.C., Watson, C.E., & Plaut, D.C. , ( 2012 ) SOS! An algorithm and software for the Stochastic Optimization of Stimuli. Behavior Research Methods, 44(3), 675-705. URL:
  • Armstrong, B.C., LeBoutillier, J.C., & Petit, T.L. , ( 2012 ) Ultrastructural synaptic changes associated with Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Quantitative analysis of hippocampal region CA1 in a Nf1+/- mouse model. Synapse, 66(3), 246-255.
  • Armstrong, B.C.* & Plaut, D. C., ( 2011 ) Inducing homonymy effects via stimulus quality and (not) nonword difficulty: Implications for models of semantic ambiguity and word recognition. In L. Carlson, C. Holscher, & T. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2223-2228). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • MacInnes, W. J.*, Armstrong, B.C., Pare, D., Cree, G. S., & Joordens, S., ( 2009 ) Everyone’s a critic: Memory models and uses for an artificial Turing judge. In B. Goertzel, M. Hutter, & P. Hitzler (Eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (pp. 132-137). Paris, France: Atlantic Press. Second runner up for Kurzweil Best Artificial General Intelligence Paper at AGI 2009.
  • Armstrong, B.C.*, Joordens, S., & Plaut, D. C., ( 2009 ) Yoked criteria shifts in decision system adaptation: Computational and behavioral investigations. In N.A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (Eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2130-2135). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • Armstrong, B.C.*, & Plaut, D. C., ( 2008 ) Settling dynamics in distributed networks explain task differences in semantic ambiguity effects: Computational and behavioral evidence. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.) Proceedings of the 30th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 273-278). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • Connor, S., Williams P. T., Armstrong, B.C., Petit, T. L., Ivanco, T. L., Weeks, A. C. , ( 2006 ) Long-term potentiation is associated with changes in synaptic ultrastructure in the rat neocortex. Synapse, 59(6), 378-382.